新冠疫情对入境加拿大以及签证或移民申请的影响

在疫情肆虐全球的特殊时期,很多逗留在加拿大的人,包括国际留学生和陪读家长,以及工作签证的持有者,很想回国,但是又担心如果需要临时回来,可能无法入境。而对于工作签证申请、学生签证申请、移民申请已经获批,但是依然没有进入加拿大的人,也很想知道自己什么时候可以入境,需要做哪些准备。正在等待签证或移民申请的人们想知道自己的申请是不是会受到疫情的影响。以下的内容会对这些问题一一作答。

  1. 谁可以进入加拿大

为了更好地控制COVID-19新冠病毒的影响,加拿大总理宣布了旅行限制的规定,此规定限制人员进入加拿大。大多数人将不能来加拿大旅行,尽管他们已经获得了有效的探访签证或是电子旅行许可证(eTA)。 这些规定阻止了外国人来加拿大的所有非必要旅行,但也包含了一些豁免条款。

除了加拿大公民、加拿大永久居民,以及依据加拿大印第安法注册的人一直可以入境之外,如果您满足以下条件,并有必要的入境理由,也有可能被允许进入加拿大:

  • 必要入境理由的美国公民或从美国入境的外国人。
    • 工作或学习
    • 提供关键基础设施的服务
    • 经济服务和供应链
    • 采购必备物品如药品或是其他保证个人和家庭安全的必需品
    • 提供健康和紧急医疗和安全服务
  • 难民
  • 外籍工人
    • 所有临时外籍工人都满足旅行限制的豁免条件,可以乘飞机或从陆路进入加拿大
  • 国际学生
    • 持有有效的学生居留证(大签)或是您的学生居留证在2020年3月18日或之前获批
  • 刚获批的永久居民
    • 永久居民申请在2020年3月18日或之前获得批准
  • 加拿大公民或永久居民的直系亲属 (详情请参考下面的内容)
  • 与居住在加拿大但不是加拿大公民或永久居民的直系亲属团聚,并获得了加拿大政府的批准信 (详情请参考下面的内容)
  • 中转旅客(中转期间不得离开加拿大机场)
  • 加拿大军队工作人员,来访军方人员,国防部人员,以及他们的直系亲属
  • 官方认可的外交官和他们的直系亲属(包括包括北大西洋公约组织(北约),《联合国总部协定》下的组织,以及其他组织)
  • 机上或船上工作人员
  • 居住在圣皮埃尔和密克隆群岛的法国公民,并且进入加拿大前的14天内仅在加拿大、美国或圣皮埃尔和密克隆群岛逗留过。
  • 所有被加拿大首席公共卫生官认为不会对加拿大的公共卫生造成明显的伤害,并且在加期间可以提供急需的服务的人。
  • 所有被加拿大移民、难民及公民部部长、公共安全和紧急事务部部长,或是外交部长认为其在加拿大的驻留符合国家利益的人
  • 所有受卫生部长的邀请来协助抗击COVID-19 的人
  • 所有运送医疗物资的来加人员

直系亲属的定义为:

  • 配偶或是同居伴侣
  • 非独立子女(含未成年子女)
  • 非独立子女的非独立子女
  • 父母或是继父母
  • 监护人或法定指导人

加拿大公民和永久居民的直系亲属

登机前往加拿大之前,您必须:

  • 接受航空公司的健康检查以确保您没有COVID‑19的症状,包括发烧、咳嗽以及呼吸困难
    • 任何人如果存在上述症状,则不允许登机。
  • 告诉航空公司您满足旅行限制的豁免条件
  • 出示您入境加拿大的必要性,入境目的不是非必要或非必须的,例如旅游、休闲,或娱乐
  • 出示您是加拿大公民或永久居民的直系亲属的证明
  • 确保您有允许飞往加拿大的有效的旅行证件(探访签证或是电子旅行许可证),以及有效的护照

证明您是加拿大公民或永久居民的直系亲属的文件

您必须拥有以下两种文件:

  • 您的直系亲属拥有加拿大的公民或永久居民身份的证明文件
    • 加拿大护照
    • 加拿大公民证明文件,如公民证、公民卡、或是省或地区政府颁发的出生证
    • 加拿大枫叶卡
    • 加拿大永久居民旅行证
    • IRCC特别颁发给加拿大公民的免签外国护照
  • 您和这个直系亲属的关系的证明文件
    • 结婚证或同居证明
    • 出生证
    • 家庭团聚移民的永久居民确认函(COPR) (COPR的申请类别为FC) 或者是在一年期难民家庭团聚项目(特别项目号为OYW)
    • 其它可以证明直系家庭关系的文件(例如,加拿大政府回复您配偶团聚移民申请的信件,或是显示相同家庭地址的文件)

备注: 上述文件的纸质和电子版都是可以接受的.

获得加拿大政府批准,与居住在加拿大非加拿大公民或永久居民的直系亲属团聚

登机前往加拿大之前,您必须持有:

  • 加拿大政府颁发的允许您飞往加拿大的批准信
    • 给加拿大移民、难民及公民部 (IRCC)发电子邮件至COVID- TravelExemptions-Exemptionsdevoyage-COVID.IRCC@cic.gc.ca。 加拿大移民、难民及公民部将会在收到您邮件的48个小时之内联系您,并告诉您下一步做什么。
    • 您也可以就近联系加拿大政府的海外办公室,申请获得批准信
  • 持有有效的探访签证(如果您来自加拿大非免签国家)或是电子旅行许可证(如果您来自加拿大免签国家),以及有效的护照
  • 告诉航空公司您符合旅行限制的豁免条件
  • 给领事馆或移民官证明您入境加拿大的必要性,比如和配偶、伴侣或是父母居住在一起
  • 如果负责官员认为您的入境目的是非必要的,比如旅游、休闲,或娱乐,您的豁免申请可能会被拒绝。
  • 接受航空公司的健康检查以确保您没有COVID‑19的症状,包括发烧、咳嗽以及呼吸困难
  • 任何人如果存在症状,则不允许登机。

如果您没有获得旅行限制豁免的批准信,您将会被拒绝登机前来加拿大,即使您拥有有效的探访签证或是电子旅行许可证。

入境者须进行强制隔离

当您乘坐飞机或是从陆路进入加拿大,加拿大移民、难民及公民部将会在入境口对您的健康状况进行评估。入境后必须隔离14,即使没有症状。此隔离要求是强制的。

入境加拿大时,您必须有隔离计划。如果您没有隔离计划,将会被带到指定的隔离点进行隔离

只有提供急需服务的工作人员,比如频繁穿越边境的物流卡车司机,可以免除强制隔离的要求。

不遵守隔离计划的人,可能会受到以下惩罚

  • 不高于$750,000加币的罚款
  • 入狱6个月
  • 被判定为“拒绝入境的人”,从加拿大驱逐,并在1年内不能再次入境。
  1. 在审理中的移民申请

申请加拿大紧急救助计划(CERB)或失业保险(EI)是否影响家庭团聚担保人的资格?

如果您申请了CERB补助或失业保险,你担保人的身份不会收到影响。CERB补助或失业保险不被列入社会救助的范围。

永久居民申请在2020318日或之前获得批准

如果您的永久居民申请在2020年3月18日或之前获的批准,而您还没有登陆,那您将满足旅行限制的豁免条件。

登陆手续将改为电话完成

加拿大移民、难民及公民部已经取消了所有见面登陆预约。如果可能的话,登陆手续将改为电话完成。无法电话完成的,将会在晚些时候重新安排。

IRCC会发电子邮件通知您电话登陆的时间,如果您的联系方式发生变化,请使用Web form (网上表格) 发出通知。

获批的永久居民申请人的文件已经过期或是即将过期

如果您的永久居民的申请已经获得批准,但是您无法在文件过期之前登陆,请用Web form 解释您无法前来的原因。

一旦您可以旅行,请用Web form知会加拿大移民、难民及公民部,这样加拿大移民、难民及公民部会告诉帮您下一步该怎么做。

永久居民申请在审理过程中

有些手续您可能无法立即完成,包括:

  • 提交护照或支持性文件,比如无犯罪记录证明
  • 完成移民体检

加拿大移民、难民及公民部不会因COVID-19的影响而造成的文件缺失,而关闭或拒绝任何申请。他们会自动给您90天来完成这些手续。一旦您可以行动,请尽快完成手续以避免拖延。

撤销永久居民申请

受旅行限制的影响,如果您想撤销您的永久居民申请,请用Web form来知会加拿大移民、难民及公民部。

加拿大移民、难民及公民部会在您满足以下条件后,安排退款:

  • 在您递交申请24小时之内撤销
  • 还未开始处理您的申请
  1. 暂居在加拿大的外国人和临时居留签证申请

如果您在加拿大境内,并且签证即将过期:

如果您持探访签证(一般可滞留6个月),可以申请探访居留证(探访大签)来延续您的滞留时间。

如果您持工作或学生签证,如果满足续签条件的话,可以申请续签。如果不满足续签条件的,可以考虑改签为探访居留。

如果您在加拿大境内,并且签证已经过期,但在90天之内:

可以申请身份恢复,需要说明申请身份恢复理由,并满足申请身份的所有条件。

49日起取消接受临时居留签证纸质申请

根据加拿大移民、难民及公民部于2020年4月9日发布的指令,申请人不可经由签证申请中心递交纸质的临时居留签证申请(含工作签证、学生签证,以及访客签证)。这一举措将执行至4月29日(包括当日)。期间,所有的临时居留签证申请必须通过加拿大移民、难民及公民部官方网站在线递交:https://www.canada.ca/en/services/immigration-citizenship.html

如您于2020年4月10日或之后递交了纸质的临时居留签证申请,您的申请将被退还。

请注意,加拿大移民、难民及公民部将改变不符合当前旅行限制豁免规定的临时居留签证的申请方式。2020年4月9至4月29日,改变的申请类别包括:

  • 探访签证(包括过境签证)
  • 电子旅行许可证(eTAs)
  • 学生签证
  • 工作签证

提供必要服务的国际学生工作时长

持学生签证在高等教育机构里全职学习的国际学生,一般在非学校假期期间被允许工作不超过20个小时。鉴于目前疫情的发展,加拿大移民、难民及公民部对国际学生提供必要服务的工作时间的限制取消。如果您工作的领域在以下十个领域,并符合“COVID-19疫情期间加拿大必要服务的功能指南” (https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/ntnl-scrt/crtcl-nfrstrctr/esf-sfe-en.aspx)中的工作描述。

  • 能源和公用设施
  • 信息通信技术
  • 金融
  • 健康
  • 食品
  • 交通
  • 安全
  • 政府
  • 制造业
  1. 指纹录入

指纹录入的期限自动改为90

尽管您的指纹录入的指导信(BIL)上显示您必须30天内完成此步骤,IRCC会自动给您90天的时间。您不需要一个新的指导信。

加拿大服务部的指纹录入

为了保障大家的安全,加拿大服务部将暂停指纹录入的服务,直至进一步的通知。

  • 所有指纹录入的预约都已经取消。
  • 在加拿大服务部恢复服务后,您需要重新预约指纹录入的时间。
  • 如果您无法在加拿大服务部进行指纹录入,也不要去其他地点寻求此服务,例如:
    • 加拿大边境
    • 美国的申请服务中心,以及
    • 签证申请中心

加拿大境外的指纹录入服务

访问网站canada.ca/biometrics, 查询你附近的签证服务中心(VACS)的指纹录入服务是否恢复了。

目前在中国的11个加拿大签证中心的状态都是“仅提供有限服务”,需要预约。请访问网站:https://www.vfsglobal.ca/canada/china/index.html,获得最新信息。

其他信息

捍理律师事务所有着多年的移民上诉、司法审核、以及移民申请的经验。事务所创始人Daniel Henderson律师出生并成长于BC省, 已出庭起诉或代理辩护了几千个案件, 拥有近30年出庭经验,专长于移民上诉、移民申诉和司法复审以及重大恶性刑事案件。

如需要帮助,请致电捍理律师事务所604-558-2258,或发电子邮件至info@hendersonleelaw.com,与加拿大移民、难民及公民部的律师或是移民顾

BC Tenants and Landlords: Negotiations during the COVID-19 pandemic

Written by: Alfonso Chen

Introduction

Tenants of residential tenancies generally want a place to stay that is suitable and remains suitable as a residence. Landlords of residential tenancies generally want tenants to pay rent on time and properly maintain their rental units. Often, when tenants and landlords have disputes about whether their rights under the Residential Tenancy Act or associated case law or regulations have been infringed upon, they can rely on the Residential Tenancy Branch (the “Branch”) to assist them in resolving their disputes. Some landlords may seek an order of possession from the Branch. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a temporary halt on many evictions in BC. The provincial government has a $500 supplement available for certain tenants in need of that to pay part of their rent. However, this might not be enough for the full amount of rent. Disputes will undoubtedly arise through the next few months between tenants and landlords over their rights and responsibilities. This article seeks to assist landlords and tenants in resolving their dispute privately during this time of uncertainty.

To note, there are certain tenancies that do not fall under the Residential Tenancy Act which are not discussed in this article. There are also many methods to resolve residential tenancy disputes– this article only raises a few issues and is not exhaustive. Some disputes may also be unsuitable for private negotiations. Due to these reasons, you must seek advice from a lawyer regarding your particular case before relying on any of the contents of this article.

Initiating the Negotiation Process

It is crucial that you act in good faith and with a sense of appreciation of the troubles COVID-19 may cause on the other party.

As a landlord, you must recognize that many tenants may simply be unable to pay rent and may be unable to fix parts of the premises that they damaged due to circumstances beyond their control. It may be futile to send a strongly-worded letter to the tenant demanding the tenant to pay the rent in full and on time or demanding the tenant to have something fixed right away.

As a tenant, you must recognize that landlords may rely on rent to buy groceries and possibly for their entire disposable income and may be unable to fix parts of the property, such as appliances, promptly. If you have the means to pay rent in full and on time, then you should do so – after all, there is an agreement between you and your landlord.

You may wish to begin negotiating by advising the other party of your awareness of how COVID-19 has impacted the other party. You can express your concern without blaming the other party as well as set out proposals for how to resolve the issue, including reasonable timelines. Recall that people are particularly stressed at this time and adjusting to working from home. They may be unable or unprepared to reply promptly. Unless your matter is urgent, a text message or email can work to express your understanding of their circumstances and of the potential delay in receiving responses. After a day or two, you can give the other party a call to follow up. In all, you should begin with a positive attitude and with a desire and commitment to resolve matters privately and amicably.

Negotiating

Upon both parties communicating with one another to begin negotiating, you can assess whether it is possible for you to resolve the matters among yourselves or if you require a third party to help facilitate the negotiations. If there is a mutual friend or acquaintance who can objectively assess the situation and provide a fair and enforceable proposal to resolve the dispute, then you can ask that mutual friend to step in and assist during the negotiations. You may also wish to list what aspects of the tenancy are most important to you and ask the other party to do the same. With the lists, you can try to find ways to mutually accommodate the other’s interests. It is probable that you would have to both give and take during negotiations. As such, you may wish to also proactively list what you can do to benefit the other party. Upon reaching an agreement to resolve the dispute, the landlord and the tenant should write down and sign a written agreement, of course while following best practices on minimizing the spread of COVID-19. To note, certain agreements are unenforceable. You should each have a lawyer independently review your proposal prior to reaching the settlement and have the lawyer assess the enforceability of your agreement.

Conclusion

Residential tenancy disputes frequently arise and are sometimes difficult to resolve. However, you may increase your chances of successfully settling matters privately by: a) approaching the negotiation with a positive and understanding attitude, b) being prepared for the negotiations, c) reasonably accommodating the other party’s interests while pursuing protection of your own, d) taking steps to ensure that the agreement is enforceable and d) creating a written record of the agreement.

Henderson & Lee has many lawyers who handle residential tenancy matters and has recently implemented a fully remote initial consultation system to allow us to continue supporting those facing legal challenges in BC so that new clients do not need to leave home just to visit our offices. If you require assistance with your residential tenancy dispute or any other legal dispute, please feel free to call (604) 558-2258 to schedule an initial consultation. We warmly welcome the opportunity to serve you. In any event, we wish you the best in resolving disputes with your landlord or tenant.

Alfonso Chen is a litigation associate of Henderson & Lee. His practice mainly involves civil litigation and criminal defence matters.

What is intentional infliction of mental suffering in B.C.?

Written by: Danna Shan (law student) and Alfonso Chen

In certain situations, people conduct themselves outrageously to others and cause the latter to suffer mentally. For example, Wilson may intentionally play the violin loudly every night at 11:00 p.m. for over a year with the windows open because he dislikes his neighbour, Jim, and hope that Jim would suffer from anxiety due to his conduct. Jim may actually then suffer from anxiety and want to make a claim against Wilson. In such circumstances, Jim may consider claiming for damages for intentional infliction of mental suffering, which is a tort available in B.C. This article provides an overview of this tort in B.C. and general comments of the tort.

As a preliminary matter, intentional infliction of mental suffering is not easy to establish in court. Before you act on anything in this article, you must obtain legal advice from your lawyer.

To establish the tort of intentional infliction of mental suffering, the claiming party must establish that the other party engaged in outrageous/flagrant conduct, had an intent to cause some harm of the kind produced, and caused actual harm. First, outrageous conduct may be established in certain cases where a person employs false statements and inaccurate information about another that are flagrant and extreme. Some conduct that are perceived as unfair might not constitute outrageous or flagrant conduct. For example, if Wilson borrows $100,000 from his other neighbour Jeff and promises to pay back the $100,000 after a month and instead pays back the $100,000 after two months, Jeff might not be able to make a viable claim for intentional infliction of mental suffering on the basis of the late payment because the conduct itself is generally not outrageous. Next, the intent element may be established considering the evidence available, even if the person who engaged in the allegedly outrageous conduct testifies of not having intended any harm to be caused to the claiming party. Finally, the actual harm of the mental suffering should be backed by medical evidence and be a visible and provable illness. Mere testimony that one feels depressed or feels anxious alone is inadequate. Further, the mental suffering should not be mere stress or annoyance– the claimed mental suffering should be a recognizable psychiatric illness, such as depression and anxiety. Sometimes, it would be a prudent step to call an expert witness to assist you in establishing this element.

Many people may feel that others have treated them in a way that has caused them to suffer mentally and wish to litigate as a result. However, before commencing the lawsuit, one should consider the risks and benefits of litigation as well as alternatives, such as making other claims instead or attempting to negotiate a settlement. In certain cases, you may have to pay for part of the other party’s legal fees if you have no chance of winning the claim in the first place.

Many of our lawyers handle litigation files on a daily basis and can assist you in identifying your case’s strengths, weaknesses, and available options. If you would like to meet for an initial consultation, please feel free to contact our number at 604-558-2258, and we would be honored to help you.

Danna Shan holds a Master of Law degree from the University of Cambridge and is expected to become Henderson & Lee’s articled student by early 2020 and a lawyer by early 2021.

Alfonso Chen is a litigation associate of Henderson & Lee. His practice mainly involves civil litigation and criminal defence matters.